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Studies

~Various Studies undertaken~

Studies

The J&K Lake Conservation and Management Authority has a well-established water testing laboratory working under the aegis of Research & Monitoring Division. The samples collected from different spots and analysed for various parameters. The biological and microbiological parameters are also being monitored regularly in addition to macrophytic studies. The number of samples collected on monthly basis from different spots are as per the following schedule:

Area

No. of sampling spots

No. of samples

Open water expanse

20

24

Back water area

5

5

Floating garden area

1

1

Houseboat area

1

1

Inflow channels

4

4

Exit channels

3

3

Bloom Hit area

2

4

 

 The data thus generated is then compiled on yearly basis so that its interpretation can be applied to the process of lake conservation from time to time.

 

Water Quality in Dal lake:

 

            Due to increase in human settlements in the catchment areas there is a ecological stress which often gets reflected in the water quality of lake. However, due to consistent conservation measures adopted from time to time the deterioration has been arrested to a large extent.

Various measures adopted by J&K LCMA for the conservation of Dal lake:

  1. Deweeding
  2. Dredging
  3. Solid Waste Management
  4. Diversion of liquid waste to Sewage Treatment Plants
  5. Catchment Area restoration works
  6. Commissioning of settling basin

 

The latest data for the year 2019-20 (September to August) reproduced below reveal that the open water expanse where the influence of human settlement is minimum, the water quality is to a large extent good.

 

 

Parameters

Unit

Central Site Hazratbal basin

Central Site

Nishat basin

Central site

Nigeen basin

Opposite Hotel Nun Kun

Surface

Bottom

Surface

Bottom

Surface

Bottom

Air Temp.

oC

7.1-31.5

4.9-33.9

3.6-30.0

5.6-30.0

Water Temp.

oC

6.6-28.0

5.5-25.2

5.1-27.5

5.0-25.1

5.5-31.0

 

5.8-28.0

 

6.2-27.0

Depth

m

2.5-3.2

2.1-3.3

5.5-6.1

2.3-3.0

Transparency

m

0.9-2.0

0.6-1.8

0.5-1.5

0.7-1.8

pH

 

7.8-8.3

7.5-8.0

7.9-8.3

7.7-8.2

7.5-8.2

7.3-7.9

8.0-8.3

Conductivity

µS/cm

192-230

218-245

142-275

155-290

187-355

245-424

209-225

Dissolved Oxygen

mg/l

6.2-7.5

 

4.4-6.2

 

6.3-7.9

 

4.5-7.2

 

5.7-7.0

 

2.8-6.0

 

6.6-7.5

 

Nitrate Nitrogen

µg/l

438-570

 

409-476

 

382-520

 

375-485

 

315-656

 

270-754

 

490-540

 

Ammonical Nitrogen

µg/l

130-261

 

158-574

 

101-382

 

135-578

 

307-873

 

388-2565

 

130-308

 

Ortho-Phosphate

µg/l

125-364

 

133-457

 

80-356

 

92-349

 

125-367

 

176-522

 

115-187

 

Total Phosphorus

µg/l

450-1100

 

512-1380

 

300-1050

 

371-1100

 

453-1207

 

798-1820

 

500-600

 

TDS

mg/l

104-1007

109-1100

85-850

72-909

102-1207

134-1820

95-115

TSS

mg/l

15-23

18-28

16-23

18-27

25-40

28-45

15-26

Turbidity

NTU

2-7

4-8

1-5

2-7

5-22

15-28

3-9

COD

mg/l

11-19

12-19

11-26

12-19

BOD

mg/l

3-5

4-6

4-9

3-7

 

The influence of population is clearly visible in the backwater areas where the nutrient values are comparably on higher side.

Parameters

Unit

Khawjayarbal

Saida Kadal

Western Foreshore Road

Air Temp.

oC

4.3-31.1

4.6-29.8

4.6-31.7

Water Temp.

oC

5.1-27.9

3.1-23.0

4.2-28.0 

Depth

m

1.0-1.7

0.7-1.0

1.3-2.0 

Transparency

m

0.2-1.2

0.0-0.1

0.1-1.0 

pH

 

7.5-8.1

7.2-7.6

7.6-8.0

Conductivity

µS/cm

235-380

332-560

235-375 

Dissolved Oxygen

mg/l

3.2-7.0

0.8-6.0

5.2-7.2

Nitrate Nitrogen

µg/l

390-956

352-1200

370-875

Ammonical Nitrogen

µg/l

235-3998

1159-2975

325-1112

Ortho-Phosphate

µg/l

158-760

963-2458

188-789 

Total Phosphorus

µg/l

550-2200

2100-7500

456-2054 

TDS

mg/l

50-155

62-160

40-135 

TSS

mg/l

9-50

22-62

10-40

Turbidity

NTU

7-20

16-30

8-18

COD

mg/l

20-37

45-83

18-29 

BOD

mg/l

11-18

22-23

8-14

 

BIODIVERSITY :

            Dal lake harbours a significant variety of biological communities viz-a-viz; Macrophytes, Phytoplanktons, Zooplankton, Fish, Benthos, Periphyton, Avifauna etc but undesirable changes and various environmental factors have resulted in decline of quality and quantity of these biological communities.

 

MACROPHYTES :

The various species of Macrophytic Plants present in the lake are tabulated as under:

Emergent

Submerged / Rooted  Floating

Free Floating

Phragmites communis

Hydrocharis morsus ranae

Alternanthera philoxeroides

Typha angustata

Hydrocaris dubia

Azolla

Spargonium erectum

Nelumbo nucifera

Lemna minor

Sagittaria sagatifolia

Nymphea alba

Marsilliea quadrifolia

Rumex martimus

Nymphea stellata

Salvinia natans

Rananuculus

Nymphoides peltatum

Spirodella sps

Potentilla repans

Myripohyllum verticellatum

Trapa natans

Juncus sp.

Eurayle ferox

Trapa bispino

Menyanthes trifoilata

Potamageton natans

 

Alisma plantigina

Ceratophyllum demersum

 

 

Char asps

 

 

Myriophyllum spicatum

 

 

Potamogeton lucens

 

 

Potamogeton puscillus

 

 

Potamogeton prectinatus

 

 

Potamogeton crispus

 

 

Hydrilla verticellata

 

 

Utricularia flexusa

 

 

Vallisneria sp.

 

            Many constituent factors of environmental complex like water chemistry, effluent enrichment and physical contours of the lake govern the distribution and growth of aquatic vegetation. The macrophytes that are dominant and present almost throughout the year with varying frequency and density are Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum. Potamogeton crispus, Hydrilla verticellata, Potamogeton lucens, Potamageton natans alongwith the free floating plant sps.

Lake Basin

Dominant species

Nehru Park

Ceratophyllum demersum

Myriophyllum spicatum

Hydrilla verticellata

Nishat

Nymphea

Nymphea stellata

Nymphoides peltatum

Ceratophyllum demersum

Hazratbal

Nymphea

Potamogeton natans

Ceratophyllum demersum

Nelumbo nucifera

Nigeen

Ceratoohyllum demersum

Alternanthera philoxeroides

Nelumbo nucifera

Azolla a free floating fern although an exotic specie covered the maximum water expanse in the year 2008 to 2014 and after that has shown declining trend. From 2015 there has been a shift where Nymphea sps dominates most of the lake surface in Nishat basin and some areas of Hazratbal basin.

 

Plankton:

            Qualitative and quantitative study of planktons both Phyto and Zoo is carried at different listed sites.  

  1. i)                  Phytoplankton:

The various species listed under the different classes of Phytoplankton are as under:-

Bacillariophyceae

Chlorophyceae

Cyanophyceae

Euglenophyceae

Dyanophyceae

Amphora sps.

Ankistrodesmus sps.

Anabaena sps.

Euglena sps.

Peridinium sps.

Cymbella sps.

Actinastrum sps.

Anacystis sps.

Phacus sps.

Gymnodinium sps.

Coscinodiscus sps.

Closterium sps.

Aphanocapsa sps.

 

 

Cocconeis sps.

Crucigenia sps.

Coleospharium sps.

 

 

Diatoma sps.

Coelastrum sps.

Chroococcus sps.

 

 

Diatomella sps.

Cosmarium sps.

Gloceapsa sps.

 

 

Eunotia sps.

Desmidium sps.

Merismopedia sps.

 

 

Fragilaria sps.

Euastrum sps.

Microcystisaeruginosa sps.

 

 

Gomphonema sps.

Gonium sps.

Nostoc sps.

 

 

Gomphoneis sps.

Mougeotia sps.

Oscillatoria proteus

 

 

Gyrosigma sps.

Netrim sps.

Polycystis aeruginosa

 

 

Meridion sps.

Oedogonium sps.

Sphaerocystis sps.

 

 

Melosira sps.

Pediastrum sps.

 

 

 

Navicula sps.

Phacus sps.

 

 

 

Nitzschia sps.

Spirogyra sps.

 

 

 

Pinnularia sps.

Scenedesmus sps.

 

 

 

Rhopalodia sps.

Selemastrum sps.

 

 

 

Synedra sps.

Straustrum sps.

 

 

 

Surirella sps.

Sorastrum sps.

 

 

 

Stauroneis sps.

Sphaerozosma sps.

 

 

 

Tabellaria sps.

Schroederia sps.

 

 

 

 

Tetraedron sps.

 

 

 

 

Ulothrix  sps.

 

 

 

 

Xanthidium sps.

 

 

 

 

The data for the year 2019-20 (September to August) for some representative sites is reproduced below.

 

Classes

Unit

Central Site Hazratbal basin

Central Site

Nishat basin

Central site

Nigeen basin

Opposite Hotel Nun Kun

Surface

Bottom

Surface

Bottom

Surface

Bottom

Baccillophyceae

U/L

2200-4100

2200-5900

900-3000

1000-3200

2100-4200

3100-5100

1300-2700

Chlorophyceae

U/L

200-3500

100-2200

100-800

200-1000

700-2300

500-2700

100-2600

Cyanophyceae

U/L

100-700

0-300

200-1200

500-1400

0-600

100-1200

300-1400

Euglenophyceae

 

 

 

0-600

0-400

 

 

 

Dyanophyceae

U/L

 

 

0-600

0-400

 

 

0-100

 

Classes

Unit

Khawjayarbal

Saida Kadal

Western Foreshore Road

Baccillophyceae

U/L

300-2900

400-2200

400-3200

Chlorophyceae

U/L

200-2100

200-1700

100-1600

Cyanophyceae

U/L

100-200

100-400

100-300

Dyanophyceae

U/L

0-3300

0-300

 

  

The various classes of Phytoplankton dominate in the order of :-

Bacillariophyceae>Chlorophyceae>Cyanophyceae>Euglenophyceae> Dyanophyceae

 

  1. ii)               Zooplankton:

The various species listed under the different classes of Zooplankton are as under:-

Rotifera

Cladocera

Copepoda

Asplanchna sps.

Alona affinis

Cyclops sps.

Asplanchropus sps.

Bosmina longirostris

Diaptomous sps.

Brachionus sps.

CHydorus spharicus

Eucyclops agilis

Euchlania sps.

Daphnia sps.

Nauplii

Keratella sps.

 

 

Lecane eleclis

 

 

Lepadella ovalis

 

 

Monostyla sps.

 

 

Mytilina ventralis

 

 

Notholca acuminate

 

 

Polyarthra sps.

 

 

Pompholyx sps.

 

 

Platyias sps.

 

 

Squantinella mutica

 

 

Trichocerca sps.

 

 

 

Classes

Unit

Central Site Hazratbal basin

Central Site

Nishat basin

Central site

Nigeen basin

Opposite Hotel Nun Kun

Surface

Bottom

Surface

Bottom

Surface

Bottom

Rotifera

I/L

20-52

18-48

7-33

6-36

4-42

7-28

10-34

Cladocera

I/L

12-33

3-40

4-28

2-24

4-33

3-33

9-32

Copepoda

I/L

2-28

2-36

3-24

2-22

3-28

2-24

6-30

 

Classes

Unit

Khawjayarbal

Saida Kadal

Western Foreshore Road

Rotifera

I/L

4-30

3-26

6-30

Cladocera

I/L

3-20

2-20

3-20

Copepoda

I/L

2-12

2-16

2-14

 

The various classes of Zooplankton dominate in the order of :-

Rotifera > Cladocera > Copepoda

 

Fish:

            The present day fish catch of the Dal lake comprises of 75% of Carp among which Mirror carp and Scale carp are dominant followed by  Schizothorax sps  which are 20%  and rest are 5%.

 

The various species listed are as under:-

  1. Cyprinus carpio specularis
  2. Cyprinus carpio communis
  3. Carassius carassius
  4. Labeo species
  5. Crossocheilus diplocheilus
  6. Botia berdii
  7. Nema  cheilus
  8. Schizothorax niger
  9. Schizothorax curvifrons
  10. Schizothorax essocinus
  11.  Puntius
  12. Gambusia
  13. Schozothorax plagiostomus
  14. Glyptothorax sps.

During the year 2019-20 (September to August) the percentage and highest catch was maximum for the mirror carp. The Labeo species, Botia berdii, and  Nemacheilus are rarely found now in the catch.

Avifauna:

            Dal lake provide nesting and breeding grounds for a variety of both native and breeding grounds for a variety of both native and summer migrants mainly represented by Dabchick, Pheasant tailed Jacana white spotted fantail fly catcher, white browed fantail flycatcher, common Kingfisher, yellow head wagtail, grey wagtail, white wagtail, little bittern, Whiskered tern, Himalayan Monal, Chakur etc. Besides these birds the winter migrants also visit the lake during night hours in winter for feeding.

 

Floating garden:

            Floating gardens or radhs are made of long strips of the lake reed with a breadth of about six feet and are used for growing vegetables like cucumbers, melons and watermelons. The nutrient rich soil help to produce vegetables in abundance and of excellent quality.

 

Bacteria:

            The microbiological quality of Dal lake waters is due to the possible contamination due to the entry of  sewage or fecal matter.

 

Parameters

Unit

Central Site Hazratbal basin

Central Site 

Nishat basin

Central site 

Nigeen basin

Opposite Hotel Welcome

Fecal Coliform

Colonies / 100ml

1-10

1-9

1-15

1-17

 

 

Parameters

Unit

Khawjayarbal

Western Foreshore Road

 Fecal Coliform

Colonies/  100ml

21-148

 9-58

 

 

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS:

 

The R&M Division is also monitoring the efficiency of 6 Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on daily basis. The complete details of the STPs is as under.

Name of the STP

Capacity

Name of Technology

Date of commissioning

Brarinambal UEED

17.1 MLD

Activated sludge

 

Hazratbal

7.5 MLD

Fluidized Aerobic Batch Reactor (FAB)

2006

Habak

3.2 MLD

Fluidized Aerobic Batch Reactor (FAB)

2006

Laam

5.4 MLD

Fluidized Aerobic Batch Reactor (FAB)

2007

Brarinambal (LAWDA)

16.1 MLD

Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR)

2013

Nallah Amir Khan

4.5 MLD

Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR)

2013

 

The data generated after analysis the effluent parameters is uploaded on the official website of J&K Lake Conservation and Managment Authority.

 

 


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